Visualisation of the large intestines upto caecum per rectally using a flexible Colonoscope.
A flexible tube is passed through the rectum after proper cleaning of the intestines. Local anaesthetic jelly lubrication is used. Sedation and analgesics are used in about 30% of all colonoscopies. Preparation for colonoscopy is done by giving the patient Peglec powder dissolved in 2 litres. of water. Patient drinks this solution as much as possible preferably over one hour and can come for the procedure after 4 - 5 hrs.
Direct examination in color being superior to black and white barium enema, early malignancy and mucosal abnormalities are better picked up with colonoscopy. Biopsy and occasionally treatment like removal of small tumours / polyps can be done in the same sitting.
Colonoscopy is generally indicated in the following circumstances: